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人民币跌两日贬值预期升温 房价不跌或还回升

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 欠款数十万 却将价值百余万房屋“卖”80万 法院: 不许! (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

杭州中院驳回林生斌等人对杭州市公安消防局的民事起诉

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

No. Having ended Robert Mugabe’s 37-year rule — with a little help from the army — Emmerson Mnangagwa has promised free elections in 2018. That raises one problem: he could lose. He must at least pretend elections are fair because he needs donor money to help turn the economy around. That would mean electoral reforms, which risk a loss for his unpopular Zanu-PF. Even if Mr Mnangagwa were prepared to roll the electoral dice, it is not clear the army is. Having got their man in, Zimbabwe’s generals are unlikely to allow the public to kick him out.
傲人的财务业绩和令人炫目的新科技,或许已足以让这位钢铁般坚定的苹果首席执行官赢得英国《金融时报》2014年年度人物(Person of the Year)的称号。但库克阐述自己价值观的勇气,同样让他与众不同。
CELEBRITY couple Ronald Cheng and Charlene Choi, who announced their separation earlier, are actually getting a divorce。  明星情侣郑中基和蔡卓妍,早先宣布二
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John Williams's classic score still raises goosebumps over 40 years after this summer blockbuster hit theaters. Jaws preys on our primal fear of the unknown in deep waters, showing a small beach town ravaged by a series of attacks from a single killer shark. In recent years, environmentalists have stressed the generally nonthreatening nature of sharks, which kill an average of just eight swimmers each year.
5. Starbucks. Brand love: 26% / Social Business Index Rank: 26
The THE Asia University Rankings for 2017 rated Peking University and Tsinghua University, both in the Chinese capital of Beijing, as the second and third best universities in the continent. National University of Singapore is ranked the best.

天蓝、地绿、水清的美丽中国
2018年,反对科技巨擘(Big Tech)的声音将扩散到科技行业雇员群体,很多人质疑他们所做的工作是否真的在拯救世界。
因为参加了一档电视真人秀节目《Dance Moms》,来自宾夕法尼亚州的12岁明星玛蒂?齐格勒火爆全球,澳大利亚流行歌手希雅的多首歌曲的MV中也有她的身影(图)
在定制课程排行榜上,排在第二名瑞士洛桑国际管理发展学院之后的是杜克企业教育学院(Duke Corporate Education)。这是这所美国学校连续第3年位列第三。该校在2014年连续第12年占据定制课程排行榜榜首位置,创下纪录。
惊慌随之而来,不过这名少年很快镇定下来,他决定把控局面,寻找逃生出路。

Footnotes

  • 有购房者一次性买走成都某楼盘60套房 总价上亿
  • n. 通道,频道,(消息)渠道,海峡,方法

Richard Waters
A·O·斯科特
My Dear Wife
13 Reasons Why
'I was blown away by him,' Kushner recalls. 'The first time I interacted with him was at News Corp, when he was meeting with Murdoch, and I was looped in to provide perspective. Nick described the vision of what he was trying to accomplish. And he was providing insight to Rupert.' D'Aloisio's stage presence, coupled with the deep-pocketed credibility brought by Li, attracted a large group of benefactors to Summly, including Ashton Kutcher, Yoko Ono and Stephen Fry.
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东莞在遇倒闭潮?为你揭开家具等制造业的生存脸谱

References

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