Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 房地产去库存这半年：滞销的城市房子更难卖.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
The area is close to the city centre and the demolition contractors had to make sure that when they brought down the buildings they did not damage a light rail viaduct nearby or a shopping mall and electricity sub-station.
8. Flats are allowed on the red carpet – or are they?
The price of U.S. benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude, which is traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange, has been kept lower by problems transporting the oil to markets. Those troubles have eased recently, but Sabine Schels, head of fundamental commodity research at Bank of America Merrill Lynch, doubts the problems will disappear.
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
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4. Stop eating, gotta get those cheekbone sharp enough to cut butter.
The central bank last year spent more than six months signaling its intent to wean the economy off a third round of bond-buying, and the prospect upset markets at just about every turn. Now it's only in the first stage of that process.
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In fact, one ancient saying was, "ifyou have Kucha, only one percent of the states in the Western Frontiers remain unsubmissive."
Scott Brooks gets leeway as he learns his roster, and injuries continue to play too big a role. But I just can't fathom why this team is so much worse than the playoff team from a couple years back. The other piece is that it's unlikely the Wizards can conceivably be bad enough to get a top-five pick.
The average salary of St Gallen’s alumni jumped to $102,000 three years after graduation compared with $90,000 last year.
The study is available online.