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6月财新中国制造业PMI升至50.4 重回扩张区间

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 卫计委:大中城市房价攀升 七成家庭不敢生二孩 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

房贷市场升温助楼市回暖 多银行执行九至九五折

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

中共中央纪律检查委员会称,约9.8亿元非法资产获追回。
布莱恩·肯德罗拉是纽约Stack's Bowers Galleries 拍卖行的行长,他透露这次拍卖吸引了来自6个国家的6名竞拍者。在星期四举行的拍卖会上,中标者是一名匿名的亚洲收藏家。
改编自上世纪70年代真实贿赂事件的影片《美国骗局》当晚表现更加抢眼,埃米?亚当斯(Amy Adams)和珍妮弗?劳伦斯(Jennifer Lawrence)凭此片分获最佳女主角和最佳女配角奖。《为奴十二年》虽在提名数量上与《美国骗局》打平,参与了七个奖项的角逐,但当晚只摘得最佳剧情片一个奖项。
The world got by in 2013 with fewer confidence-shaking moments than in prior years. But the vulnerabilities haven't disappeared. 'It's not a great story anywhere, though it's more hopeful than it has been,' said Jerry Webman, chief economist at OppenheimerFunds.
单词property 联想记忆:
All kinds of companies say they plan to add senior systems analysts, whose base pay is projected to rise 5% over this year's levels, to as high as $85,500; financial analysts, whose salaries will start at $81,500 at large companies, 4.8% more than in 2010; and experienced administrative assistants, at starting salaries of up to $41,750, a 3.1% increase.
项目长度:13至15个月

A New Year greeting to cheer you, my good friend.希望新年祝福给你带来欢乐,我的好朋友。
It all started when Beatty opened the envelope to read the winner for best picture. He looked confused, took a long pause and then glanced at Dunaway. "Come on!" Beatty handed the envelope to Dunaway, who announced: "La La Land!"
[plein]
我是说,让一个9号秀同伊巴卡和杰夫格林这样带队真的没问题吗?可能吧。只是从之前糟糕的表现上来看……
vt. 切成薄片,削

Footnotes

  • 中国楼市危机:十年后一对夫妻6套房 没人买房
  • adj. 城市的,都市的

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双语:明星纹身爱用拉丁语 粉丝追捧学语言
To Frans de Waal [The Netherlands and USA] and Jennifer Pokorny [USA] for discovering that chimpanzees can recognize other chimpanzees from seeing photographs of their rear ends.
Golden State Warriors point guard Stephen Curry said he has visited China every year since 2013 and the fans there are incredibly supportive.
Pay is an issue, he says (the median salary for reporters in 2010 was $36, 000); he's not sure he can raise a family and send kids to college on a reporter's salary. And yes, the stress and the hours can be taxing. But he says, 'I'm not sure I'd be happy in another setting. I can't think of any job that would be as exciting or as fulfilling as this.'
In an interview with Yicai magazine last week, the chairman of China Construction Bank pointed to the rising tide of non-performing loans as the biggest problem confronting China’s banks.

国家级贫困县房价近省会城市!或因拆迁所致

References

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