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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Spielman was sifting through dirt at the Emek Tzurim national park on the slopes of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem when she noticed the small rectangular object.

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She’s No. 1: Chancellor Merkel has made the list eight times out of the past ten years — seven times as No. 1.
"Wholesale food prices suggest that pork, vegetable and fruit price inflation all eased last month," said Capital Economics before the figures came out. "
现代中国经销商Wang Rongzhen7月20日向路透社指出,现代汽车已经缩减提供给中国进口经销商的产品阵容,仅提供一款车型供销售,而在中国国产的车型不断增加。

In 2015, the number of migrant residents living in Shanghai dropped for the first time in the past 15 years, Shanghai Television reported Monday.
这部电影也是为了纪念2005年电视剧发行十周年而拍摄的。
The most exciting part is the offseason

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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郑中基和蔡卓妍:手原来是离婚
社交网络公司Facebook 、电子商务巨头亚马逊和玩具公司乐高则是品牌价值增幅最大的企业。
陆金所是最大的一家。它是中国平安保险(Ping An Insurance)的子公司,平安也是陆金所最大的股东。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

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格温o史蒂芬尼的广告在好几个应用上同时推出,其中就有总部位于硅谷的短信应用Tango。Tango主要通过用户收件箱里的广告赚钱,但它已采用了Swyft的平台,该公司广告和平台副总裁理查德o拉百特表示,这类广告非常契合人们使用Tango的方式。一年前,Tango决定不再卖贴纸了,因为向用户要钱总会带来很多摩擦。拉百特称:“在人们沟通过程中放上一道‘留下买路钱’的大门绝不是我们希望带给用户的体验。”所以,就由Swyft来提供这种广告吧。
TV soaps regularly top the TV ratings but the highest trending show of 2012 was the BBC kids' show 'Mike The Knight' that beat US terror drama 'Homeland' and 'Towie.'

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • But that hasn't stopped scientists from growing actual human brains in a lab. Starting with nothing but stem cells, scientists in Austria this year managed to create brains equivalent to those in nine-week-old fetuses. These miniature brains are the size of peas and are incapable of thought—so far. The one thing keeping the brains from growing beyond this stage and becoming fully functional is that they have no blood supply.
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  • 不像那些狂热追星的小女孩,玛蒂认为她一直都能保持着冷静的头脑,即使在格莱美颁奖典礼这种场合。因为她将自己视为一个明星,所以她需要表现得体。
  • 2022年全球高性能涂料市场将超102亿美元
  • 家居卖场促销潮尚未到来 部分建材价格上涨
  • 尽管销量大幅增长让人欢欣雀跃,但它并不是汽车业今年最重大的新闻。底特律先是因为通用汽车公司(General Motors)提拔玛丽?芭拉出任汽车业首位女性首席执行官而欢欣鼓舞;紧接着,福特汽车(Ford)首席执行官艾伦?穆拉利在重回波音公司还是加入微软公司(Microsoft)两者间犹豫不决之际,它又紧张得大气都不敢喘。传统的三巨头抱怨现有产能已挖掘到极限,开始制订扩张和聘用新人的计划。特斯拉公司(Tesla)让电动汽车的销量火了一把,而且不肯按行规出牌;而同时谷歌公司(Google)则在自动汽车研制上一马当先。
    Treating Birth Defects Before a Baby Is Born

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 2015年家居市场前三季度市场比较, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

4月 新房断供二手房企稳

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

天猫动了谁的奶酪? 家居业线上线下联动细节需落实

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    Are you heading to Rio for the Olympics? Will you leverage the Google Maps app on Android or iOS? I think you already have the answer.
  • 尽管在奥巴马担任美国总统的过去的四年里,美国经济复苏缓慢、失业率居高不下,奥巴马在几个关键的摇摆州获得的选票还是高于罗姆尼。美国选民在两种风格明显迥异的国家发展愿景中做出了自己的决定。
    比蒂还在台上就遣责了这个因为给错信封而导致的史诗级巨大失误,他说他打开信封就看到了“《爱乐之城》中的爱玛?斯通”的名字。
    How do you feel about workingwith Ei Aoki again in Aldnoah?
    Neighborhoods
    这位腾讯公司员工说道:“我们希望她的妈妈能出面协助我们一起调查此事。如果用户确实13岁,未经允许花钱,那么我们可以协调退还。”

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 浙江临安启动民宿环境整治行动
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 地产股上半年市值蒸发超万亿元 下半年又将何去何从?

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Iron Man 3 is the highest-grossing movie of 2013 so far with $1.2 billion. But that’s not enough to put its star, Robert Downey Jr., on top of our list of the top-grossing actors. Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson beat him this year by working more.
7) Let Me Play Devil’s Advocate: Looking for a subtle way to critique? Turn the conversation into an exercise where you’re a detached party performing a function: Poking holes in the logic and plan of attack. You use this strategy to stress test ideas without making the process personal.
She pointed to equal pay, saying it's not "just a woman's issue" but something that affects everyone. "If you have a wife, a mother, a sister, a daughter who is working and they are not being treated fairly, the whole family suffers," Clinton said.
●"Pope Francis Shocks World, Endorses Donald Trump for President, Releases Statement"
Pushing ahead with the five priority tasks through reform
8、邦德并不是个喜剧演员 但他懂得合适的时候来点小幽默。女性很容易被有趣的男人吸引,因为幽默标志着智慧。可以这么讲,一个人多有趣,可以来推断他与多少女人风流过。
“现在,我只给她稍微擦了点唇膏,涂了点指甲油。”

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

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  • 赖特是英国浪漫主义画派的鼻祖之一。这幅作品从1840年起一直由德比郡的一个家族私藏。考虑到目前的行情,它的最低估价仅为10万英镑,还有一个重要因素是它的拍卖款将用于救济叙利亚难民。结果,至少有三位竞拍人把价格推高至66.5万英镑(含佣金)。
    福特是硅谷一家软件开发公司的创始人,他认为“或许需要从根本上重建我们的经济规则”,以减轻机器人和自动化的进步带来的冲击。他提出建立保底的基本收入,即“公民红利”,作为一项根本性的补救措施。
  • 楼市调控要推动形成合作博弈
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Will Smith had a very successful career in the late 80s and early 90s as the second half of rap duo DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince. But in spite of his financial success, Smith did not manage his money well. It's a pretty classic tale, really. New fame, lots of money, no future plans, and lots of fancy toys added up to a lot of overspending. This lack of oversight and fiscal irresponsibility landed him on the brink of bankruptcy. He owed the government back taxes that he had not paid.
    全球缓慢的经济增长并不会很大程度的拖累美国。美国的出口额虽然可能持平甚至下降,但是这将会被由于油价下降的石油进口额抵消,所以贸易赤字并不会给美国经济造成更进一步的影响。
  • While Jaws's story is extremely unrealistic, it was based on a real series of deaths attributed to a single shark in 1916. In what has been dubbed the "most unique set of shark attacks that ever have occurred," the Jersey Shore saw four people die from shark bites over the course of two weeks. The offending shark was reportedly caught with body parts still in its digestive tract, although leading scientists still aren't sure what drove it to attack so many people.
    (复数)dealin
  • 诺贝尔化学奖颁给了一位尝试制作世界上最小的分子机器的科学家。
    影片大量借鉴了亚瑟·布雷默的事迹,此人于1972年枪击了总统候选人和隔离主义者乔治·华莱士。与电影中一样,布雷默枪击华莱士也是在被一个年轻女孩拒绝后不久。尽管如此,他的生活总的来说不如德尼罗的角色那么激动人心,他俩最大的共同点,就是都没有真的杀死目标。
  • 各类公司均表示要扩充高级系统分析师队伍。与今年的薪酬水平相比,这一职位的起薪预计会增长5%,达到8.55万美元;大型企业中,金融分析师的起薪将达到8.15万美元,比2010年增长4.8%;经验丰富的行政助理的薪水也将上涨3.1%,达到4.175万美元。
    罗宾哈丁(Robin Harding)
    I am afraid to go out in the sun now because of the holes in the ozone. I am afraid to breathe the air because I don't know what chemicals are in it. 我现在害怕晒太阳,因为臭氧层出现了空洞。我现在害怕呼吸空气,因为我不知道那里有多少化学物质。
  • The improvements in education levels mirrored the development of China's education system. Independent research into China's education situation showed that overall education development was better than the world average last year, Yuan Guiren, minister of education, said in March.
    《三生三世十里桃花》的豆瓣评分为6.4分,一些网友认为,这部剧的爱情戏码太多了。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 调查:近半家庭认为所在城市房价高 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

广东:唤醒“沉睡”的土地

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

开发商强攻年底 第四季度有望成今年最好一季

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

告别“激进” 房企低调控风险

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

调查:59.9%受访者建议扩大廉租住房保障范围

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 这几年的实践可以证明,中国经济“硬着陆”论可以休矣。我们会长期保持中高速增长,并迈向中高端水平。
  • “在三个月里,我在我的三个女儿身上总共花费了5000英镑。有一件裙子花了我两百美元,她只穿过两次,就长高了、不合身了。——不过我不打算节制开支。”
  • 8.5折房贷利率重现京沪 分析认为有”博眼球”成分

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 乌拉圭代表了一个更令人感到好奇的例子,国家队的球员是伪装成小人物的足球贵族。像比利时一样,这也是一个相对年轻的国家,但在赛场上它则是一名老手。他们曾两次赢得世界杯,第一次是1930年首届世界杯,第二次是在1950年,当时巴西是东道主。后来的那次被称为“马拉卡纳之殇”,一场人们在今天依然还记得的国家悲剧,当时巴西在创世界记录的20万(或许更多)球迷面前被压垮了。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • More than 110 new and returning series made the shortlist for this roundup before being whittled down to the 20 that appear here. (And that’s without the HBO shows “True Detective,” which is being moved to later in the year, and “Game of Thrones,” “Veep” and “Silicon Valley,” whose April premiere dates haven’t been announced.) From a “Breaking Bad” spinoff, to the return of “Broadchurch,” to the final season of “Justified,” the winter is high season for the serious TV watcher.
    n. 身份,一致,特征
    May the coming New Year bring you joy, love and peace.
  • GDP growth of around 6.5 percent, or higher if possible in practice.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 贾斯汀比伯名列第五,因他为慈善组织Pencils of Promise和Believe Charity Drive做的贡献。
  • 增强城市核心功能 聚焦关键重点领域——十一届市委四次全会侧记
  • flimsy

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 智能家居标准不统一是硬伤 规模发展尚需时日
  • Household substance abuse
  • “我一直交费的停车位 被小区物业公司‘卖’给了别人。”
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

二手房挂牌超高价暗藏猫腻 同一房报价差108万元

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 国常会:抓紧研究适当降低社保费率 科技企业孵化器免征房产税
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • LED照明大咖忙并购扩产 小企业“生死存亡”
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

The cost of living the Australian dream has surged with Sydney and Melbourne among the five most expensive cities in the world, outstripping most European and US locations, according to an annual survey released on Monday.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

格温妮丝·帕特罗(Gwyneth Paltrow)曾出演《莎翁情史》(Shakespeare in Love)获最佳女主角奖,并成为好莱坞明星。为了避免在发表获奖感言时出现混乱,她却把小金人藏了起来,因为“这东西吓坏我了”。
The global battle for the living room continued in Germany with Sony announcing it 2has sold 10 million PlayStation 4s worldwide. To keep that momentum going, Sony announced a number of exclusive new titles at the show, including the action game Hellblade from developer Ninja Theory, the open world adventure game Wild from Rayman creator Michel Ancel, the shooter Alienation from Housemarque, and Q Games genre-bending The Tomorrow Children. Microsoft announced that Square Enix and Crystal Dynamics Rise of the Tomb Raider, the second game in the rebooted Lara Croft franchise, will be an Xbox exclusive in 2015. Xbox will also be getting another big sequel next year with Halo 5: Guardians.
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这些专家都不是轻量级的。杰出的历史学家玛格丽特?麦克米伦(Margaret MacMillan)在2013年12月的一篇为布鲁金斯学会(Brookings)撰写的文章中说:“像1914年的世界一样,我们正在经历国际权力结构的转换,新兴大国正在挑战老牌大国。”她补充说,“如今,同样的一幕正发生在美国与中国,以及中国与日本之间”,同时她还表示,“中国与它另外两个邻国——越南和马来西亚——也有爆发冲突的可能性。”
近日公布的一份调查结果显示,清华大学毕业生的平均薪酬在全国高校毕业生中最高。
例如,绕路或拒载的司机或面临最高2000元的罚款。
stressful
《生活真奇怪》
No. This crisis hit Amsterdam in 1772, after a respected Dutch investment syndicate made a disastrous bet on shares of the British East India Company.
'He does smoke cigarettes, he smokes many, many cigarettes.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

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Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Children and hobbies do not belong on a résumé. And never, ever say, "Now that my kids are in college, I'm ready to get back in the workforce."
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 斯科特-布鲁克斯教练在看到他的球员名单后就知道了他执教的退路有多大了,伤病一直以来都是球队里的大佬。但是我还是捉摸不清为什么这支球队比以前的那支季后赛球队差那么远。另一方面,奇才不可能差到以至于会得到前5的顺位吧。
  • 无人超市火了对卫浴企业带来的启发
  • 2、Lying
  • 江苏南京、苏州等热点城市房价上涨预期下降
  • 男性使用这个密码的几率是女性的2.8倍。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 90后买房被高房价“赶鸭子上架”
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 6. 米兰达?可儿
  • 2015年最差职业

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

房贷利率刹车

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