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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

《琅琊榜》

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她说:“所有监管机构都在考虑这么做,提高透明度始终是可喜的。但能否做到则是另一回事。监管机构谈论提高透明度并降低费用,但在立法方面没什么进展。”
泰勒 斯威夫特
Jack Ma, founder and executive chairman of e-commerce giant Alibaba Group topped the ranking of China's richest IT people for the third consecutive year.

目前,中国15座城市允许对某些国家的公民实行72小时免签证入境。上海、江苏和浙江则为来自某些国家的国际过境旅客提供144小时免签证停留。
Alternative fuels: For the first time since diesel-powered cars from Europe started arriving here in the 1950s, old first-person accounts about the joys of driving a diesel fall off to near zero. They are replaced by new first-person accounts about the joys of driving cars with ridiculously high horsepower like the 580-hp Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 and Dodge’s Challenger SRT Hellfire with 707 hp. Elsewhere: fuel-cell cars with their longer cruising range move center-stage, stealing the limelight from battery-powered cars.
这些排行榜是基于某个特定学科的研究能力而做出评价,与综合榜单评价方式不同。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

住宅拟以套内使用面积交易 专家:5年内落地可能很小

女子200米蝶泳——刘子歌、焦刘洋
马纳尔·阿尔-谢里夫最有名的,是挑战她的祖国压制女性的法律和习俗。
"We hope the mother will come to us and verify the facts. If it's true that the user is a 13-year-old who spent the money without consent, we can negotiate a refund," the Tencent employee said.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

vt. 起草,征
The January-to-November period in the United States this year was the warmest first 11 months of any year on record for the contiguous states. And 2012 will likely surpass 1998 as the warmest year on record for the nation, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
答:这个问题好奇怪啊,因为当我读了好多斯蒂芬·金的故事之后,我就很想开始写作了。他的故事真的是又惊人又有趣啊。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 还有哪对系列电影的荧幕情侣可以像《暮光之城》的克里斯汀?斯图尔特和罗伯特?帕丁森这样成功开创戏路呢?两个人都成为了影坛名角。帕丁森在最新作品《好时光》中延续了他近年来这种让人几乎认不出的造型风格。在《迷失Z城》中,他把自己打扮成胡子蓬乱的眼镜男,如今他又把头发染成亚麻色,变身为一个试图在纽约完美做案,结果却让患有发育性残疾的弟弟(本?萨弗迪饰)被捕的银行抢劫犯。他试图用盗取的钱来给弟弟交保释金,结果麻烦接踵而至。很多的麻烦。除了饰演弟弟一角外,本?萨弗迪还和自己的哥哥约书亚?萨弗迪共同执导了这部电影。《好时光》入围了今年戛纳电影节的主竞赛单元,参与角逐金棕榈奖。该片于11月3日在日本上映,11月17日在英国和爱尔兰上映,11月23日在希腊上映。(资料来源:A24制片公司)
  • 楼市“小阳春”背后的三重分化
  • 自2014年10月以来,新兴市场出口额(以美元计算)一直下降,即使没有2008年至2009年全球金融危机期间的下降幅度极端,也比当时持续的时间要长得多,如第一张图表所示。
  • 发改委酝酿光伏电价系列新政
  • 佛山照明董事长钟信才谢幕 潘杰上任
  • 如果你很卖命的工作并且给公司创造了价值,你本应该得到酬谢。如果你的老板在两年之内没有给你涨薪水,去申请吧。如果老板不同意,还考虑什么,走吧。
    "Twenty Two" featuring the tales of 22 comfort women became the first Chinese documentary to surpass 100 million yuan at the box office.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 北京住建委:针对通州商品房项目开展执法检查 两地产项目因违规被处罚, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

双十一退货率居高不下 地板企业应该做些啥?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

调控高房价各地有硬招 多地供需匹配持续强化

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 单词facilitate 联想记忆:
    瑞士洛桑国际管理发展学院在针对所有在职管理人员的开放招生课程排行榜中拔得头筹,在针对企业客户的定制课程排行榜中攀升了两位,升至第二。西班牙Iese商学院在定制课程排行榜上继续保持榜首位置,在开放课程排行榜中仍位居第二。
  • However, this year it is ranked in eighth place.
    Given a choice, Chinese university graduates prefer to find employment rather than start a company.
    阿斯利·埃尔多安(Asli Erdogan)
    前“世界小姐”朴雅卡·乔普拉位列2015世界美女榜第九。她是一名印度演员兼歌手,是宝莱坞片酬最高的女演员之一,也是印度最受欢迎、知名度最高的名人之一。她获得过无数荣誉,包括印度国家电影奖的最佳女演员奖项,以及印度电影观众奖的四项大奖。
    May happiness follow you wherever you go!愿您幸福快乐,直到永远永远。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 各地楼市政策或以微调为主 一二线城市有望率先筑底放量
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 江浙强三四线城市库存走低 房企伺机介入

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

"Wholesale food prices suggest that pork, vegetable and fruit price inflation all eased last month," said Capital Economics before the figures came out. "
reflect反射;沉思+ion→反射;思考
vi. 过活,进展,进食
再来看一下流失顾客的公司吧。
学者们指出,身份认同可以分为两大类,一种是“获得性”的身份认同,基于个人努力;另一种是“先赋性”的身份认同,基于自身天生的特征。
Murder on the Orient Express
我们要求FlightAware对航班抵达延误情况进行统计,而不是航班出发延误情况,因为有时候,航空公司可以让飞机在空中飞行期间追回地面上失去的时间。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 2018年底石油价格会超过每桶70美元吗?
  • 央行:下一阶段将继续实施稳健的货币政策
  • Effective email marketing involves more than occasionally blasting out a newsletter. To build an effective email marketing strategy, you need a tool packed with functionality. MailChimp seems to be the best system out there, offering elegant, intuitive newsletter templates, advanced list segmentation features and marketing automation capabilities.
    过去10年,全球最具价值品牌100强的品牌价值增长一倍多,增幅达到133%。品牌价值是根据收入和盈利能力等财务指标,结合消费者品牌认知调查计算的。
  • 儿童漆到底是物有所值还是商家嘘头?
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 反对:尽管该片被洛杉矶影评人协会评为最佳剪辑奖,但却没有受到纽约影评人的重视。它的势头会逐渐减弱吗?
    “I think the best way to engage young people in the process is to win,” he says.
  • DiCaprio received a pat on the back from producer Harvey Weinstein and a standing ovation from the crowd as he collected the award for best actor in a drama for The Revenant.
    提升科技创新能力。
  • 10. Drawing Words Helps Your Brain Recall Them
    成长的故事:现代的巴黎郊区与20世纪70年代的旧金山,这两部影片以残酷的城市和无尽的热情,把成长为女人的可怕惊险之路变得戏剧化。
  • As China gains ground, its best frenemy – the United States – account for the other half of the top 10 spots. Berkshire Hathaway and Wells Fargo WFC -both move up four spots to No.5 and No. 9, respectively.
    这个夏天,诺埃尔将成为受限制自由球员,考虑到他公认的防守能力、未开发的潜力和乐透秀身份,他期望得到一份慷慨的补偿合同,即使他的职业生涯上场时间还不足5000分钟。
    v. 拥抱,包含,包围,接受,信奉
  • Jude Webber
    久而久之,这种民族融合给球队带了不同寻常的和谐。队中的年轻球员,尤其是切尔西的阿扎尔和卢卡库以及曼联的贾努扎伊,成了许多竞争对手羡慕的对象。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The “禁墅令”实施十余年 各种擦边球项目层出不穷 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

海福乐五金携手AIM打造异动空间

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

毕业季租房 当心中介玩“套路”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

建材大腕集结 剑指西部建材产业高地

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

新增产能初步遏制 建材工业加速回暖

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 他回忆称:“我曾认为教书不是一个合适的职业选择。我的老师告诉我,如果我想当一名老师,就得有很强的忍耐力,不能轻易感到厌倦。”
  • Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC).” Previous reports have pegged the screen size at just under the 5 inches of Samsung’s Galaxy 4.
  • 石材行业如何突破物流“瓶颈”

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • China’s retail sales softened as industrial production and investment held more or less steady in spite of a weaker showing from exports last month.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 打造众创、众包、众扶、众筹平台
    007系列电影主题曲第四名:汤姆·琼斯--《霹雳弹》
    ‘Our hope is that the Worst Passwords of the Year list will cause people to take steps to protect themselves online.’
  • As for the worst job of 2013? Newspaper reporter bumped last year's loser, lumberjack, for the ignominious distinction.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 《出租车司机》被誉为历史上最伟大的电影之一,讲述了一名沮丧的前海军陆战队员,在被爱慕的女子拒绝后,试图暗杀参议员的故事。名义上的出租车司机崔维斯·拜寇,生活混乱,充斥着毒贩和妓女,但他的故事从来不是不现实的幻想。相反,它揭示了一个人差点成为成为枪手的真实预警。
  • 新华社:为百姓减负 促社会公平——透视个税法修正案草案看点
  • An odd assortment of S&P sectors led the market higher this year, with some strange bedfellows atop the leaderboard. Even if a manager had foreseen that the healthcare sector would gain 27% this year, would they have guessed that utilities would be in the No. 2 slot, with gains of 23%? Unlikely.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 社科院:11月全国房价良性回调 住房市场良性调整
  • Household substance abuse
  • 家居团购表面让利 实则暗藏玄机
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

三亚施行商品房交易“限时网签” 售楼中心门庭冷落

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 光伏启动新一轮扩张,预计不会再现严重产能过剩
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 清华全玻璃真空太阳集热管获科技部大奖
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Jennifer Lawrence also took home the gong for best actress in a movie for her role in the critical darling Joy.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

据报道,香奈儿艺术总监卡尔·拉格菲尔德于巴黎去世,享年85岁,整个时尚界都为他的离世而感到震惊。
Others have come up with some, um, creative ways to say sayonara. When staffing firm OfficeTeam asked about 600 U.S. human resources managers to describe the weirdest ways they’ve seen or heard people resign lately, here’s what they said:
"They see some pretty awful things," she told the BBC. "But this is something that will stay with them for a long time."
According to the search engine, Euro 2012 beat Olympics tickets as the top internet search of the year in the UK, the Sun reported.
猪肉和蔬菜价格均同比下降了逾8%。
报告还指出,其中2.01亿(27%)网民来自农村地区,城市和农村地区互联网普及率差距为45.2%。
8.Prosthetic Hands That Sense Touch
罗宾哈丁(Robin Harding)
Additional reporting by Ma Nan
时间:2010-11-24 编辑:beck

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

黄金周银联卡跨行交易数据:房产交易同比降20%

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 陶博宏表示,这可能过于悲观了。他说:“亚洲的情况往往比我们想象的更快变化。”
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Two-thirds of this year’s deals are trading above their issue price. On average, 2017’s class of US IPOs have risen in value by about double the S&P 500, at 20 per cent, according to Renaissance Capital, which runs IPO-focused exchange traded funds.
  • 威宁西南水泥余热发电运行并网
  • “当她穿着华丽的衣服站在舞台上,她神采奕奕的表情对我来说是无价之宝。”
  • 甘肃省质监局发布2016年木制家具、内墙涂料等9种产品全国联动监督抽查情况
  • 《 佛罗里达乐园》

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 基建投资规划再加码 稳增长带动水泥需求
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • We will improve mechanisms that give incentives and allow for and address mistakes so as to support those who are dedicated to their work and stand behind those who live up to their responsibilities. Every one of us in government must take an active approach to our work and have the courage to tackle the toughest problems, we must work closely with the people, using concrete action to make progress in development, and using genuine hard work to realize a bright future.
  • 4.Autonomous Cars

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

2015年1-4月全国陶瓷砖产量达29.3亿平方米

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