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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

樟宜机场集团总裁李绍贤先生表示:“连续五年获得Skytrax世界最佳机场的殊荣,这是对整个樟宜机场五万多名职员巨大的鼓励,我们每一位员工都极富热情,并且希望留给每一位旅客最难忘的候机经历。”

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Mass entrepreneurship and innovation
很多人相信,对于中国资源环境来讲,人口已不再是主要威胁。相反,中国的人口危机已转变成出生率过低,社会老龄化加剧以及性别比例失衡。在中国的珠江三角洲等地已经出现了技工短缺的现象,所以不久以后,我们可能将看到计生政策上的重大变革。
清华大学(Tsinghua)与欧洲工商管理学院(Insead University)合办的Tiemba项目排名上升两位,在2015年全球EMBA排行榜中摘得桂冠,而Trium项目的排名回落至第三,仅在头名位置维持一年时间。

单词revision 联想记忆:
Type A and Type B personality theory describes Type A individuals as outgoing, ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status-conscious, sensitive, impatient, anxious, proactive, and concerned with time management.
"Poverty has stunted further growth in Internet users, which has kept the Net user population to around 50 percent," Li said.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

房贷利率有望继续下行 刚需购房成本或下降

域名注册公司GoDaddy的总部设在亚利桑那州斯科茨代尔市,该公司5月份在坦佩开工建设新的全球技术中心。GoDaddy公司已经在大凤凰城地区雇佣了2,600名员工,新工厂预计将增加300多个工作岗位。其他在亚利桑那州扩大规模的公司包括领先的技术保障服务公司 Asurion。这家公司在凤凰城开设了新的技术支持中心,将在今年年底招聘500多个职位。能源供应商Direct Energy今年在亚利桑那州坦佩开设了新的呼叫中心,需要招聘300多名员工。
pandemic
3. Piggyback Rider

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

In some ways, Life Is Strange couldn’t be more different than Dontnod Entertainment’s sci-fi action game Remember Me, but in other ways, the episodic adventure game is similar. Both games use Unreal Engine 3 technology to create beautiful worlds to explore. And both titles also feature a strong female protagonist. Set in Arcadia Bay, Oregon, players take control of teenager Max Caulfield and embark on an adventure that will span five interactive episodes.
Lecent去世当月,警方并未透露是她自己无意间扣动扳机还是被屋内的其他人射中。
6.Jack Shephard Almost Died in the First Episode

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Against: Opening so early in the year outside of awards season could hinder its chances.
  • 政策之力 中国楼市走出了怎样的市场曲线?
  • 当小李子上台领取奖杯时,制片人哈维韦恩斯坦兴奋地拍拍他的背,全场观众起立为他喝彩。
  • 上半年北京住房租赁市场交易量罕见下降
  • 大兴区国瑞·瑞福园共有产权住房开始申购登记的公告
  • 排名:第一
    全球收入最高的女星排行榜4-10位:

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 转型跨界?这场“流行”衣柜企业怎么玩?, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

不动产登记与房地产市场走向关系几何

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

楼市向好成交量稳步回升 房企宣布全面提价

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 2=neutral
    坚决打好蓝天保卫战。
  • ?There's generally booze wherever 007 goes and alcohol does lead to sex. Liking alcohol was the biggest indicator of who has sex on the first date.
    Alternative fuels: For the first time since diesel-powered cars from Europe started arriving here in the 1950s, old first-person accounts about the joys of driving a diesel fall off to near zero. They are replaced by new first-person accounts about the joys of driving cars with ridiculously high horsepower like the 580-hp Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 and Dodge’s Challenger SRT Hellfire with 707 hp. Elsewhere: fuel-cell cars with their longer cruising range move center-stage, stealing the limelight from battery-powered cars.
    而或许更引人关注的问题是,雅虎究竟为何决定拿出3,000万美元来收购一款手机应用呢?诚然,Summly的文本精炼能力与新战略下的雅虎对移动设备的侧重不谋而合。伴随着以11亿美元对轻博客的收购,以及广受好评的新款天气应用的推出,Summly软件的加入见证了雅虎占领智能手机领域的坚定决心,以及为爱使手机的年轻消费者提供优质服务的不懈努力。
    The list also has some movies that earned awards at the 67th Berlin International Film Festival in February, such as the best movie winner On Body and Soul and best director winner The Other Side of Hope, by Aki Kaurismaki of Finland.
    玛戈特·瓦尔斯特伦在20多岁时结束了一段充满暴力的感情。作为外交部长,她正在一个传统上属于男性的领域里挑战各种假定。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 三月收入红火 家居卖场四月抢滩烽火燃起
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 住房城乡建设部重申:坚持房地产调控目标不动摇、力度不放松

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

这部由塞巴斯蒂安.马拉比(Sebastian Mallaby)所著的《知者:格林斯潘传》(The Man Who Knew),是这项奖金额为3万英镑的奖项的第12位获奖者。该奖项奖励的是年度“最令人瞩目和愉悦的”图书。
David said: ‘It was wonderful, you couldn’t fault it. It was perfection.’
曲道奎表示:“随着机器人正逐渐扩至几乎所有领域,我国机器人制造商应当了解自身和外资品牌间的差距,利用中国机器人的蓬勃发展并学习国外经验,以帮助我国由世界最大的机器人市场成长为机器人制造强国。”
While the currency exchange limit has not changed, individuals are now required to disclose specific details on how they will use the funds. Funds can only be used towards current account spending such as tourism and shopping, overseas study, foreign medical care and consulting services. Real estate and other investment spending are explicitly forbidden.
In this Jan. 9, 2007 file phtoo, Apple CEO Steve Jobs holds up an Apple iPhone at the MacWorld Conference in San Francisco. Jobs the CEO,
曼谷在2014-15年排行下降主要是由于近年来的政治不稳定。
不过邱佩特并不只是一只宠物猫,它只参与了两个广告的拍摄就在一年里独自挣得了230多万英镑,其中一个是为日本美容产品植村秀拍摄的,另一个则是为德国汽车公司沃克斯豪尔拍摄的。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 中国人民勤劳智慧,有着追求美好生活的不竭动力,政府就是要创造环境,让人民群众创业创新的热情持久不衰。
  • 东莞雅园新村最新公租房配租方案出炉 可供分配房源有222套
  • 质量强国、制造强国
    BrandZ表示,这些品牌靠近国内市场,这帮助它们从全球品牌手中夺取市场份额,它们还在新地区赢得市场份额。
  • 谁在操纵北京房租上涨?房产中介高价抢收房源
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • The result doesn't look much like a nose—it's a bottle filled with liquid nutrient that cultivates bacteria. But give the “nose” a blood sample and let it sniff for a few days, and the bottle's dots will change color to indicate what bacteria, if any, it identifies.
    10. Be mindful of your attitude.
  • n. 购买,购买的物品
    ['depjuti]
  • 6. Cutting Down on Saturated Fats Could Preserve Your Memory
    作为过去二十五年来的常胜将军、福特的F系列皮卡一直成功地抵挡住了雪佛兰重新设计的西尔维拉多(Silverado)的挑战,盘踞着美国最畅销皮卡的宝座。而全是日本品牌角逐的最畅销汽车决赛,丰田(Toyota)凯美瑞(Camry)再次成功击败本田(Honda)雅阁(Accord),摘得冠军头衔。
  • 尽管欧洲工商管理学院与清华大学的合办项目重新跌至亚军位置,但欧洲工商管理学院自己的EMBA项目的排名却上升3个位置,排在第四位,该项目上次获得第4名是在2011年。
    201103/129769.shtmlEveryone tells a white lie on occasion, it’s just a question of why. Some white lies save relationships, some ease a hectic situation, and others buy us time. We all do it, so there is no reason to deny it. As long as we aren’t hurting others or breaking the law, these innocent lies can make life more pleasant. Most of these white lies only stretch aninterpretation of what the truth actually is anyways. Here’s a list of the 10most common white lies and why we tell them.
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  • In 2013, the total number of applicants who qualified for the national service exam reached a record 1.52 million. In 2014, the total number decreased for the first time in four years to 1.41 million, the People's Daily website said.
    在以结束迫害科索沃境内阿尔巴尼亚族为目的和平谈判破裂后,北约于1999年3月24日开始了轰炸行动。南斯拉夫和科索沃境内的目标均受到了打击,首先是对抗北约战机的塞尔维亚防空网络,接下来是一系列范围更大的目标,包括被指直接参与迫害科索沃人的南斯拉夫军事力量。目标清单中还包括南斯拉夫首都贝尔格莱德境内的政治和军事目标。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 湖州城中村改造签约突破3万户 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

上海楼市成交趋淡 逐步降温是大势所趋

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

北京“住宅质量潜在缺陷保险”正式推行 新购住宅墙体开裂厕浴渗漏等可索赔

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

墙上挂50台空调 北京昌平天通苑公寓被责令整改

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

9月百城住宅均价环比同比双涨 深圳涨28.5%居首

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The 2014 ranking of 100 programmes for working senior executives is headed by Trium, runby HEC Paris, the London School of Economics and Stern School of Business at New York University. The top five places continue to be dominated by intercontinental EMBAs.
  • ……被要求向面试官简单介绍自己,结果她没有什么可说的。
  • 房产公司为方便选房人停车 竟然用白纸贴住“禁停”标志

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • absolutely
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • The world's second-largest economy is catching up to traditional innovation front-runners, who were led again this year by Switzerland, Sweden, Britain and the United States, said the annual report by the U.N.'s World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), INSEAD Business School and Cornell University.
    TAXES: Approximately $16,866 in 2014
    “这让编辑以为文章发送给了该学科真正的评审人。我们与真正的评审人进行调查和沟通后,他们确认并没有对论文做过评审。
  • 4.Virtual Assistant: 17.6 percent increase

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Bigcommerce does particularly well among small retailers generating $1 million to $2 million in annual revenue, although its following with those in the $20 million to $30 million range is growing quickly. Roughly 70% of its existing customer base also runs a bricks-and-mortar store. For the past year, the developer has worked hard on responsive storefront templates that work equally well on mobile platforms and desktops—design is the number-one consideration for small e-commerce merchants, it says—and on relationships with partners of “adjacent” cloud services from the accounting, payments, customer relationship management, and payroll management worlds.
  • 两招教你识别“劣质”油漆
  • 尽管看起来有着大量的目标核对工作,但在5月7日,中国驻贝尔格莱德的大使馆却被从美国空军B-2幽灵轰炸机上发射的五枚卫星制导联合直接攻击弹药击中。三名中国记者——新华社记者邵云环,光明日报记者许杏虎和他的妻子朱颖在袭击中身亡。另外20名中国公民受伤5人伤势严重。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 住房城乡建设部重申:坚持房地产调控目标不动摇、力度不放松
  • Household substance abuse
  • 武汉一楼盘销售时承诺赠面积交房时未兑现
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

房地产基建投资稳健增长 或推高三月投资数据

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 多项减税新举措助力企业轻装前行
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 全球19%的交通灯为LED 智能交通照明逐步兴起
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

就目前而言,虽然偶尔出现一些高价交易(比如大新金融中心、以21亿港元售出的太平山顶豪宅),但整个行业弥漫着广泛的悲观情绪。世邦魏理仕数据显示,今年第一季度房地产业最活跃的部分是写字楼,但交易总量也不过8笔。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

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抵达太阳系深处的人类智慧。
You can browse the full list at AskMen.com. Here are the top 10 women:
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销售与市场类
专注于新兴市场的基金集团经历了难熬的一年,安本(Aberdeen)和安石(Ashmore)的资产管理规模都严重缩水。新兴市场交易所交易基金(ETF)也遭遇大规模赎回,ETF.com数据显示,投资者从贝莱德(BlackRock)旗下基金iShares MSCI Emerging Markets以及先锋(Vanguard)富时新兴市场(FTSE Emerging Markets)撤出95亿美元。
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Rossi, 31, spends his days calculating the future costs of the Pentagon's pension, health and education benefits, but says his job involves more than just crunching numbers for spreadsheets. He communicates with other government agencies and brainstorms with colleagues about financial models.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

长润发编撰国内首本《光固化木器涂料与涂装工》权威教材

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • “…brought his dog.”
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • China becomes the first middle-income country to join the ranks of the world's 25 most-innovative economies, according to the Global Innovation Index (GII) released last Monday.
  • 万科等房企降价走量 专家:回暖没那么快
  • If you have been out of work for a long time, it may be time to consider taking a job you wouldn't have looked at before.
  • 食品、建材等5类质量安全问题亟待破解
  • n. 休息寓所,撤退,隐居

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 建材重“价”轻“质” 门窗成建筑节能的“黑洞”
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • “这可是短期内的大幅跃升:当我还是内政部长时仅有30个案例,今天则是1400。”
  • 人们大多认为,中国的智能手机只会越来越便宜。与此相反,她援引一些研究结果,表明去年中国智能手机的平均售价趋于稳定。同时随着中国用户开始购买品质更好的智能手机,售价实际上已开始走高。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

建材行业:水泥行业逐步进入淡季

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