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热销下的房地产市场:投资增速创两年来新高

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 木林森拟募资23亿元 加码LED主业 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

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The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

9. Smart wine bottle
In this 1998 swashbuckler classic, Antonio Banderas plays the protege of a boring nobleman who moonlights as a masked outlaw, saving the Mexican commoners of California from corrupt leaders. While Zorro might sound like a regular old-timey superhero, the story upon which The Mask of Zorro is based pulls heavily from legends surrounding a real-life desperado named Joaquin Murietta.
Despite car and truck sales that motored past 16 million for the first time since 2007, recalls dominated the news for most of the year. General Motors GM 1.42% held center stage, dealing with cascading revelations about faulty ignition switches and recalling millions of vehicles. While GM opted for something approaching full disclosure of its missteps , publishing an report into company-wide fumbles, Japanese airbag maker Tanaka chose to stonewall. It left any remedies up to its beleaguered customers, notably Honda and Toyota. They are the ones who deal with the fallout of exploding safety devices that fatally fired shrapnel throughout the passenger compartment.
Followers are also getting younger and better educated, with 77.8 percent in the 17-to-33 age group and 75 percent with a higher education.
3=有时是
许多人在学习小组中受益良多。你得有条有理地进行,不能拖延时间。你要将学习的内容彻底消化,并能够向别人复述出来。
学习有难度的课程

第七步 培养癖好
他们开始对无保障合同、不稳定的工作时间安排、微薄的工资以及依托优步(Uber)等在线零工经济平台的新形态工作感到忧心忡忡。总部位于巴黎的有影响力的富国俱乐部——经济合作与发展组织(OECD)将于2018年发布《就业战略》,其中可能会更加强调工作的质量和包容性。
The so-called IP-BOX will work on iPhones running iOS 7 and older. It takes 6 seconds to 17 hours hours to crack the four-digit passcode. The Daily Mail purchased the device and cracked the code on an Apple iPhone 5c in 6 hours. A version that will work on iPhones running iOS 9 will be available later this month.
人类想知道“这是为什么?”
同时,根据这一最新调查显示,2015年我国男女比例的差距也有所缩小。从性别构成看,男女人口性别比例已由2010年的105.2降至去年的105.02。

Footnotes

  • 高善文:2018年上半年房产去库存将基本结束
  • 根据中国海关的数据,10月铁矿石进口量较上月环比下降12.3%,同比下降4.9%,而煤炭进口环比下降21.4%,同比下降30.7%。

The image of a smooth-talking, chain-smoking and sexist James Bond may be a thing of the past as the latest 007 novel gives him a politically-correct makeover.
Brazil
So many of us habitually gossip, whine or complain. But do any of these too often and your job could be on the line. These all lead to the same end result: you become a headache for your manager. Your boss is likely responsible for ensuring her teams are contributing to positive morale and anyone on the team who is counterproductive to that reflects poorly on her. Negative employees are often referred to as 'cancer' by upper management for good reason: they will eventually be cut out. A good approach if you have a complaint is to speak with your manager directly, in private. Never drum up your co-workers for support first.
As stars such as Kevin Spacey and Morgan Freeman were alleged to have assaulted or harassed performers, activists began using the hashtag to share their ordeals online.
相比之下,沪股市盈率为12.6倍。这反映出A股和H股的巨大价差(37%)。在经历2015年的跌宕起伏之前,二者价差更多时候处于20%以下——暗示H股指数大有上行空间。诚然,H股指数并不代表中国“新经济”中最好的部分,特别是银行股占比偏大。增长预测十分惨淡。然而,在预期已经如此糟糕的情况下,很难想象还能坏得哪里去。即使是受产能过剩困扰的地产业也在逐渐走出低迷。
4.嘘声不仅仅是个手势

“曹园”违建 初步查明

References

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